Open market operation is the procedure for implementation of monetary policies with the help of which an apex bank regulates its money in the country through purchase and sale of government securities and other financial instruments. Foreign exchange rates or interest rates are utilized to steer its application.
As the majority of money are available in the structure of electronic cash instead of paper money, for example banknotes, open market operations are carried out just by enhancing or diminishing the amount of cash, (this is termed as debiting or crediting) which a bank holds in the reserve account of the apex bank. The apex bank utilizes newly manufactured money for buying a financial asset or financial security from the open market, for example, foreign currency, government bonds or gold. In case the apex bank sells out these instruments on the open market, the volume of cash that the buying bank holds diminishes. This lowers the amount of available money.
The procedure of open market operation does not factually necessitate the instant issue of fresh currencies. An apex bank account for a participant bank can easily be enhanced in an electronic manner. Nevertheless, this would raise the necessity of the apex bank to produce currency at the time when the participant bank is asking for banknotes in substitution of a reduction in the electronic balance. Frequently, the proportion of the entire money supply consisting of tangible currencies is extremely minute. In the U.S., lower than five percent of ordinary money is present in the structure of tangible coins or banknotes. The remaining is present in the form of credits in electronic bank accounts.
Potential Goals of Open Market Operations
In case of inflation targeting, the open market operations aim at a particular rate of interest in the short term in the loan markets. The aim is altered on a periodical basis for accomplishing and preserving the rate of inflation in a target banking institution. Nevertheless, other forms of fiscal policy variables also aim at rates of interest. The European Central Bank and the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank apply these types of modifications for directing open market operations.
In addition to targeting of rates of interest, there are several probable aims for open market operations, which include increase in money supply.
With the help of a currency board, open market operations can be utilized for accomplishing and sustaining a specified foreign exchange rate in association to other foreign exchanges.
According to a gold standard, open market operations may be utilized for accomplishing and preserving a targeted gold price. The objective is to maintain the currency value steady in association with gold.
The Federal Reserve in the United States utilizes overnight repos or repurchase agreements in the majority of circumstances for creation of money on a temporary basis and reverse repos are implemented for destroying money on a temporary basis.
Last Updated on : 1st July 2013